Henry A. Ferguson studied under Homer D. Martin and George Boughton in Albany, NY in the late 1860s. He began exhibiting at the Brooklyn Art Association in 1864 and continued to do so until 1891. He exhibited at the National Academy of Design during the years 1867 to 1900, listing various addresses in New York City. He also exhibited at the Boston Art Club (1881 – 1890), the Pensylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (1888, 1891), and the Art Institute of Chicago (1888 – 1891).
He was a member of the Century Association from 1879 until his death in 1911, exhibiting there in 1864 and 1911. He became an Associate member of the National Academy of Design in 1884.
Ferguson traveled extensively in Mexico, South America, Europe, and Egypt. His paintings often depicted the architecture of those countries. He also painted along the Hudson River, in the Berkshire Mountains of Massachusetts, and the White Mountains of New Hampshire.
In his later years, he was also a respected art restorer.